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Alcoholmd Glossary Page - C

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C Definition
C.A.G.E

Cut down, Annoyed, Guilty, Eye-opener; four questions used as a screening test for alcoholism. See also ASAM.

Cancer

A pathological state characterized by the anarchic proliferation of undifferentiated cells into more or less defined tumors. Alcohol is a major risk factor for cancer. Most cancers common to alcoholics are liver and stomach cancer as well as cancer of the esophagus.

Cannabis

Also commonly called grass, hash, hashish, or marijuana represents various psychoactive substances produced by the Cannabis sativa plant. THC (tetrahydrocannabitol) is the most abundant component converted in the body to a psychoactive substance. Some cannabinoids(products resulting from the metabolization of THC in the body) might present some interesting clinical properties.

Carbohydrate deficient transferrin

(CDT) An enzyme in the blood that is considered to be a marker of alcoholism especially useful as an indicator of relapse.

Cardiovascular

A common complication of alcoholism, under different forms such as: Cardiomyopathy, arterial hypertension and cardiac rhythm problems (tachycardia, palpitations). See Heart.

Cerebro-vascular accident

A blockage or hemorrage of a blood vessel irrigating the brain, leading to oxygen depletion of the affected brain tissue and consequently, variable motor or nervous impairments, ranging from loss of sensation or motion to coma or death. See also Stroke, CVA.

Champagne

Sparkling white wine produced in the Champagne region of France.

Chart

When used in reference to the medical record, a chart is the document that details the history and chronological occurrences of a patient's medical events. It is a legal document.

Chemical dependency

A generic term relating to psychological or physical dependency, or both, on one or more psychoactive substances.

Children

As a population, the term usually refers to people who are under the age of 18 years. The term also refers to offspring and in that context includes adult children of individuals. Children of alcoholics exhibit elevated rates of psychopathology. Anxiety, depression, and externalizing behavior disorders are more common among children of alcoholics (COAs) than among children of non-alcoholics. Children of alcoholics are four times more likely than non-COAs to develop alcoholism. See also kids, youth, youngsters, child.

Chronic disease

A disease that is lasting for a long time, and usually evolves at a slow pace.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

(COPD) Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, e.g., bronchitis and emphysema. Common complication of chronic tobacco use.

Cigarette

A device made of tobacco, a plant rich in nicotine, delivering the latter through combustion and inhalation. Nicotine is a highly addictive substance. Along with nicotine, tar and other carcinogenic substances are delivered to the body. See also Smoking, Tobacco, Nicotine, Smoking cessation.

Cirrhosis

Chronic disease of the liver, commonly found amongst alcoholics, progressively destroying digestion and detoxification functions. Cirrhosis appears more quickly in women than in men consuming the same daily amount of alcohol. A larger number of alcoholic women die from cirrhosis of the liver than alcoholic men. See also Liver.

Clean and Sober

Movie. A real-estate salesman, whose addiction to drugs and alcohol is destroying his life, reluctantly enters a detoxification program. Along with his physical recovery, he begins his emotional recuperation when he falls for a fellow patient. Stars Michael Keaton. Rated R

Clinic A treatment center.
Clinical psychologist

A clinical practitioner, trained in psychology, who specializes in helping and advising adults in dysfunctional relationships or struggling with social problems, alcohol or other addictions.

Clinical trials

Series of tests in which a drug is used on actual human subjects (healthy or not) aimed at validating the use of this particular drug in a certain context.

Clonidine

Drug used in the treatment of high blood pressure. Can be of use in certain complications of alcoholism, Clonidine is an alpha 2-adrenergic agonist that decreases norepinephrine release into the synaptic cleft. It has been used with some success in reducing hyper-adrenergic withdrawal symptoms.

Co-dependent

Spouse or "significant other" who has adapted to the partner's alcohol problem in order to maintain equilibrium in their relationship.

Co-morbidity

The presence of an unrelated medical illness along with an alcohol problem (e.g., alcoholism and diabetes) or a coexisting mental problem (e.g., alcoholism and clinical depression).

Cocaine

A substance derived from the leaves of the shrub Erythroxylon coca, Cocaine is a local anesthetic and an illicit drug used for its euphorigenic properties. Cocaine is an alkaloid; it exerts a stimulating action and powerful rewarding effect; it inhibits dopamine reuptake and presents a direct agonist effect on dopamine receptors, it also blocks norepinephrine and serotonin reuptake into synaptic nerves. See also Crack.

Cocktail

Blend of different alcohols or drugs.

Cognitive reasoning

Reasoning, the ability to solve problems and process information.

College

A place of higher learning, also known as University. In AlcoPedia, the focus on college is a place where young adults frequently experience alcohol events not as sanctioned or condoned by the college or university but as part of the social activities often initiated by peers.

Coma

State of unconsciousness triggered by acute alcoholic intoxication. See also Alcoholic coma.

Compliance

Pattern of behavior in which the patient follows the treatment that is given to him/her. Compliance plays a major role in the success of a treatment. See also Naltrexone, Medication, Treatment.

Compulsion/compulsive

An uncontrollable desire to use alcohol repeatedly in spite of potential or actual harm.

Compulsive behavior

Behavior triggered by an irrestistible urge. Includes obsessive-compulsive disorder, body dysmorphic disorder, hypochondriasis, anorexia nervosa and trichotillomania.

Confabulation

Narration of fanciful tales to avoid the impairment of the anterograde amnesia.

Confrontation

Helping a person face something he or she has failed to recognize or has denied.

Contemplation

A stage in the process of change as defined by Prochaska and diClemente; thinking about making a change.

Contraindicated

Indications that a substance or treatment should not be used.

Controlled drinking

Limiting the amount of alcohol ingested, to avoid intoxication or hazardous use.

Counter transference

A psychiatric term referring to the therapist's emotional reactions to the patient.

Court

Alcoholism often leads to legal problems. Despite the legality of alcohol consumption, its use is linked to an array of potential legal problems, starting with arrest for disorderly conduct, to DUI (Driving Under the Influence), and any violent behavior and its consequences. See also Law, Drug Court.

Crack

(cocaine) Form of Cocaine that can be smoked. Crack is harder, chunky and off-white. It is called crack because of the sound made when the cocaine is drying. Crack is a relatively cheap illegal drug with very strong and devastating effects.

Craving

Irrepressible urge for a substance. See also Withdrawal.

Crime

Because alcohol triggers aggressive behavior, it is often a determining factor in a number of violent crimes, usually related to the specific effects of alcohol on the brain, e.g., crimes associated with lifting of inhibition and instinctive behavior (sexual and physical violence). See also Violence.

Cross-tolerance

Tolerance, induced by repeated administration of one psychoactive substance that is manifested toward another substance to which the individual has not been recently exposed. See Tolerance.

CVA

Cerebro-vascular accident, Stroke.

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