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G Definition
GABA

See Gamma-aminobutyric acid.

Games and alcohol

There are a number of drinking games on the Internet revolving around various TV series, such as the X files, where the player takes a sip if the characters say a particular word or words, or if some event occurs. A similar activity is known to occur frequently on college campuses. The results are often negative.

Gamma-aminobutyric acid

(GABA) an inhibiting neurotransmitter involved in a anxiety/relaxation balance and stimulated by alcohol intoxication. GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. GABA is derived from glutamic acid, which is decarboxylated by glutamate decarboxylase. After interaction with its receptors, GABA is actively pumped back into the nerve terminals and metabolized.

Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase

(GGT) Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase or gamma-Glutamyltransferase. An enzyme that is elevated in alcohol when excessive amounts of alcohol are consumed. It is not specific for alcohol and can be elevated in other forms of liver diseases.

Gayet Wernicke's syndrome

Also called alcoholic encephalopathy, this syndrome is an acute neurological disorder characterized by ataxia (primarly the gait), vestibular dysfunction, confusion and ocular motility abnormalities including nystagmus, palsy, often bilateral and a sluggish reaction to light; the syndrom is generally reversible with a treatment of thiamin and shares some physiopathological links to Korsakoff's syndrome caused either by malabsorption problems or inadequate thiamin intake; the lesions involve the mamillary bodies, the thalamus and the cerebellum; the syndrome may recover or may progress into Korsakoffs syndrome.

Generic drug

The basic chemical for the drug without a specific brand name.

Genes

(DNA, genetics) Specific parts of the DNA molecule, determining genetically inherited specific characteristics in an individual.

Genetic factors

Numerous studies have shown that rates of alcoholism are substantially higher in dependents of alcoholics than in nonalcoholic families; family, twin and adoption studies suggest an important role of genetic determinants in the etiology of drinking problems for both men and women, results are less convincing for other substance abuse. See also Genetic Markers/genetics, Genetic Predisposition to Disease/*genetics, Genotype, Phenotype.

Genetic markers

A known DNA sequence associated with a particular gene or trait that is used to indicate the presence of that gene or trait. Genetic markers associated with certain diseases can often be detected in the blood serum, where their presence is used to determine whether an individual is at high risk for developing a disease. Most recent studies target high risk populations for alcoholism and research potential associations between a biochemical substance or a gene and a clinical profile; aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) degrades the first metabolite of alcohol (acetaldehyde). Some Asian people lack one of the two isoenzymes of ALDH and appear to have a lower rate of alcoholism, because after drinking, the accumulation of acetaldehyde is associated with facial flushing, tachycardia and malaise sensation. Monoamine oxydase (MAO) is a degradative system for neurotransmitters, low platelet MAO activity may be a marker for a predisposition to alcoholism and for impulsive behavior; another platelet enzyme (adenylate cyclase AC) may be also a potential marker in some alcoholism subtypes; the identification of an "alcoholism gene" remains a subject of debate, although dopamine receptor gene (especially D2) might be implicated in alcohol dependence. ( Excerpted from The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Third Edition 1996 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Electronic version licensed from INSO Corporation; further reproduction and distribution in accordance with the Copyright Law of the United States. All rights reserved.)

Genetic predisposition

For alcohol dependence; having genetic (inherited) characteristics that increase a person's likelihood to abuse alcohol.

Genetics

See DNA, genes

Germany

In this context, information on alcohol consumption in Germany

GGT

See Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase; gamma GT

Gin

A strong, colorless alcoholic beverage made by distilling or redistilling rye or other grain spirits and adding juniper berries or aromatics such as anise, caraway seeds, or angelica root as flavoring.

Government, France

French national organizations on drugs and alcohol

Government, United Kingdom

See also Alcohol Concern

Government, United States

See also NIDA, NIAAA, SAMHSA, FDA

Great Britain

See also Government, UK, United Kingdom, Statistics

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