Alcoholmd Glossary Page - E

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E Definition

The monetary costs of alcoholism and alcohol treatment.


A phenylalkylamine psychedelic, also known as MDMA (a variation of methylene-dioxy methamphetamine). It is identified as a club drug often used at raves. Primary user population is young people


The act or process of educating, the result of educating, as determined by the knowledge, skill or discipline of character acquired; also the act or process of training by a prescribed or customary course of study or discipline.


(medication, psychotherapy, treatment) Strength, effectiveness. The ability of an intervention to control or cure an illness. An index of the potency of a medication or disease treatment.


Term used to identify population of older people, usually over the age of 65. Some older people have been shown to drink excessive amounts of alcohol despite adverse physical, emotional and social consequences. See also Aging.

Emergency room

A hospital unit typically located in an accessible ground floor location that is set up and equipped to take care of emergent health care problems.


Any action by another person or an institution that intentionally or unintentionally has the effect of facilitating the continuation of an individuals addictive process. See also Enabling behavior.

Enabling behavior

Behavior that makes it easier for a problem drinker to continue drinking.


Any disorder of the brain. Synonyms: cephalopathy, cerebropathia, cerebropathy, encephalopathia, encephalosis

Endogenous opioid system

the endogenous opioid peptides(substances produced by the body, having a similar structure to that of the opiates family) have been described in the pain response ; their implication in behavioral regulation remains unclear and is still a subject of controversy, some studies emphazise their potential role in maintaining and sustaining addictive behavior ; such system dysregulation has been implicated in several mental illnesses as some form of autism, eating disorder and opiate dependence.

Enzyme(CDC, Gamma GT)

An enzyme is a protein that acts as a catalyst to induce chemical changes in other substances, itself remaining apparently unchanged by the process. Gamma glutamyl transferase (GGGT) is a liver enzyme characteristically increased in the blood in alcoholic hepatitis (inflammation of the liver).

Equivalence table/Alcohol Equivalence

Measurement of a standard drink of any type of alcohol, contains roughly the same amount of absolute alcohol. A standard drink is generally considered to be 12 ounces of beer, 5 ounces of wine, or 1.5 ounces of 80-proof distilled spirits.


The portion of the digestive canal between the pharynx and stomach.

Esophagus cancer

A frequent form of cancer in alcoholic subjects, affecting the upper digestive tract.


In beverages, ethanol or ethyl alcohol is present in low concentrations (usually < 15%) due to its potency. Ethanol can be lethal and has proven to be addicting. In other applications, such as medicine, ethanol has shown to have beneficial effects in the treatment of certain disorders when applied specifically and in higher concentrations than for human consumption. Ethanol is also used as an oxygenating additive in gasoline.


In this context, the continent is mentioned with regard to general alcohol consumption statistics and related problems.

Excessive drinking

Drinking more than the social norm or to an extent that could cause harm. Frequent or heavy drinking. Daily drinking, drinking to intoxication and consuming more than four drinks per occasion can be regarded as excessive for all persons because of the risks. Quantitatively, frequent drinking has been defined as drinking 20 or more days in a month, and heavy drinking as more than 60 drinks per month (this applies to an average sized male) . Excessive, frequent and heavy drinking imply high risk drinking, harmful, hazardous, high risk and problem drinking. Drinking excessively or at risk, or experiencing negative consequences Harmful drinking implies the problems have already occurred, whereas hazardous drinking includes drinking at risk.


an early morning drink to "get started" on the day's activity. Usually implies the need to compensate for withdrawal from the previous day's drinking

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